Saturday, May 23, 2020

Integrity, Confidentiality and Professional Behavior of...

Integrity According to The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), The integrity of internal auditors established trust and thus provides the basis for reliance on their judgement. IIA further added that to be integrity, internal auditors: * Shall perform their work with honestly, diligence, and responsibility. * Shall observe the law and make disclosures expected by the law and the profession. * Shall not knowingly be a party to any illegal activity, or engage in acts that are discreditable to the profession * Shall respect and contribute to the legitimate and ethical objectives of the organization. According to the 2009 Global Integrity Survey conducted by Compliance Week and Integrity Interactive, polled more than†¦show more content†¦Another issue is on whether or not internal auditors should whistleblow when they discover organizational wrongdoings. Internal auditors always face situations that involve conflict of interest while executing their dual-role duties (Armold amp; Ponemon, 1991; E.Z. Taylor amp; Curtis, 2010). The dual-role duties mentioned here are the role of internal auditors as employed by the organization, which subject to the needs and requirements of their employment, and the role as members of a professional body, they are required to adhere to the professions ethical requirements. Ahmad and Taylor support the view and assert that the role of internal auditors in providing auditing tasks for their organizational may cause ongoing conflicts. Zhang, Chiu and Wei (2009) argue that the disclosing insider information to outsiders breaches obligation to the organization, violates the written or unspoken contract, and elicits damaging publicity. However, ethically, internal whistleblowing, as opposed to external whistleblowing, is preferred. This is due to severe damage caused by external whistleblowing as compared to internal whistleblowing (Park amp; Blenkinsopp, 2009). In order to avoid the severe damages caused by whistleblowing, Vinten (1996) has suggested that an organization may minimizeShow MoreRelatedCreve Couer Pizza1889 Words   |  8 PagesCouer’s CPA. However, the professional standards set for accountants by the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) and the AICPA share close similarities. Both organizations emphasize that accountants follow a code of ethics when performing their duties. The members must use these ethical principles when engaging in accounting services for their company and the general public. The organizations note the following ethical standards: competence, confidentiality, integrity and credibility. The ethicalRead MoreAuditors Independence1295 Words   |  6 PagesWHY IS AUDITO R INDEPENDENCE SO IMPORTANT? Auditing is the efficient critical examination done by one person or group of people’s independent from the system audited. To do an audit, confirmed information must be present and some standards by which the auditor can evaluate the information. Another is gathering and evaluating any information to determine whether the information being audited is identified in accordance with establish criteria to satisfy the purpose of the audit and also auditors mustRead MoreAcc/546 Week 1 Assignment1094 Words   |  5 PagesWhy is this step so important? Posted on wed 5/8/2013 Responded to one classmates on 5/08/2013 Auditing planning is important because it helps the auditor determine his/her approach to the audit. There are two considerations that affect the approach: 1). Sufficient appropriate evidence must be accumulated to meet the auditor’s professional responsibility and 2). The cost of accumulating the evidence should be minimized. Concern for sufficient appropriate evidence and cost necessitates planningRead MoreChief Audit Executive ( Cae )1528 Words   |  7 Pagesresponsibility for establishing, maintaining and managing a comprehensive, high performance and customer oriented internal audit program. Officer-In-Charge, Supervisor Assigned as the Officer-in-Charge of a Section with responsibility for the oversight of staff and all aspects of performance audits, including reviewing and approving completed audits; recommending and ensuring compliance with internal policies, standards, and procedures; assessing, developing and implementing training needs and programsRead MoreWhat Is Business Ethics? Essay1117 Words   |  5 Pageshas to be made with an informed awareness of the specific situation and then act according to some sort of system of principals, which is Business Ethics. What is Business Ethics? . Business ethics is a form of applied , and that knowethics or professional which analyse ethical principales and moral which means the ethical problem that arise in business environment. it is examining what is wrong and right. â€Å" Then doing the right thing, but the right thing is not as straightforward as explainedRead MoreProtection for Whistleblowers in Malaysia1694 Words   |  7 Pagesform of confidentiality of their information, immunity from civil and malefactor action and safeguard from detrimental action being taken against them. Whistleblower protection is one of the Malaysian Government’s efforts towards tackling corruption and promoting good governance under Regime Transformation Programme (GTP). The WPA is also a key legislative initiative to combat corruption by facilitating protected disclosures through immunity from civil and criminal actions, confidentiality of informationRead MoreThe Changing Role of Managerial Accounting in a Dynamic Business Environment1723 Words   |  7 PagesDescribe the roles of an organizations chief financial officer (CFO) or controller, treasurer, and internal auditor. 7. Briefly describe some of the major contemporary themes in managerial accounting. 8. Understand and explain the concepts of strategic cost management and the value chain. 9. Understand the ethical responsibilities of a managerial accountant. 10. Discuss the professional organizations, certification process, and ethical standards in the field of managerial accounting. ChapterRead MoreThe Rule Of Generally Accepted Auditing Standards911 Words   |  4 PagesThis paper examines one of the rule of Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS), independence and discuss the shortcomings in the GAAS. Independence can be effect by many different reasons. Auditors might face challenges in applying concepts and interpretations under circumstances where in conflict with the auditor’s relationship with the audit client. To improve audit quality and protect investors’ interest, PCAOB reviews the work of public accounting firms that do audits of more than 100 publicRead MoreAccounting Questions and Answers4013 Words   |  17 Pagesdecision makers inside the enterprise. LO 4 17 Plant managers are internal users of accounting information systems. A) True This is the correct answer. B) False Feedback: Internal users of accounting information systems include boards of directors, chief executive officers, business unit managers, plant managers, store managers, and line supervisors. LO 4 18 The management accounting information created and used primarily by internal users is intended above all for planning and control decisionsRead MoreZZZZ Best Company: How Does a Review Differ from an Audit?1392 Words   |  6 Pagesthat a review does not offer the level of assurance that an audit does, auditors do not look at as much evidence for a review as they would for an audit, and reviews cost less than an audit. SAS No106, â€Å"Audit Evidence†, identifies the principal â€Å"management assertions† that underlie a set of financial statements. The occurrence assertion was particularly critical for ZZZZ Best’s insurance restoration contracts. ZZZZ Best’s auditors obtained third party confirmations to support the contracts, reviewed

Monday, May 11, 2020

Immigration And The United States - 1106 Words

In the late nineteenth century, the United States was relatively divided on the topic of immigration. A nation, which was essentially built by the work and concepts of immigrants themselves, was ready to close their doors to similar individuals looking for the same opportunity. While there was not a defined group of Americans in complete favor for new immigrants, there was a clear divide between those who were downright opposed and those open to compromise. Citizens opposing immigration backed up their arguments by presenting scientific information, which in most cases was invalid. On the other side of the debate, those in favor of immigrations presented some conditions. They were willing to accept new citizens but only under the condition that they were willing to â€Å"Americanize† or assimilate to the country’s culture. This Americanization was counterproductive to the creation of a nation built on the idea of a â€Å"melting pot†. While the American po pulation had differing viewpoints on the immigration debate, the general consensus was to keep immigrants out of the States. Americans in favor of immigration appeared to require some compromise from the new immigrants. The new immigrants were welcomed to the United States, under the condition that they were willing to leave some of their culture behind and conform to the culture of their new country. Regardless of this condition, these individuals were overall much more willing to welcome the new immigrants into theShow MoreRelatedImmigration And The United States986 Words   |  4 PagesImmigration in the United States continues to increase rapidly year by year. According to an analysis of monthly Census Bureau data by the Center for Immigration Studies, the immigration population in the United States, both legal and illegal, hit a record of 42.1 million in the second quarter of this year, an increase of 1.7 million since the same quarter of 2014 (CIS.org). Clearly, Immigrants make up a large part of the population in the United States, and for most immigrants, migrating to theRead MoreImmigration Of The United States1399 Words   |  6 Pages Michelle Faed English 126 Immigration in the United States The United States of America, being a country established by immigrants, is known all over the world as the land of great opportunities. People from all walks of life travelled across the globe, taking a chance to find a better life for them and their family. Over the years, the population of immigrants has grown immensely, resulting in the currently controversial issue of illegal immigration. Illegal immigrants are the people whoRead MoreImmigration And The United States965 Words   |  4 Pages Immigration is a highly controversial and big problem in the United States today. â€Å"While some characterize our immigration crisis as solely an issue of the 11 to 12 million unauthorized immigrants living in this country, our problems extend beyond the number of undocumented people to a broader range of issues. The lack of a comprehensive federal solution has created a slew of lopsided, enforcement-only initiatives that have cost the country billions of dollars while failing to end un authorizedRead MoreImmigration On The United States1302 Words   |  6 PagesImmigration Rights in the U.S. Immigration has occurred in the U.S. for for many years. Some say it’s the foundation of our country. America is the country where people leave their own country to live. People would leave due to mistreatment, hunger issues or job opportunities. America is known for starting over or accomplishing dreams, so immigrants travel over to follow those dreams. People emigrate from one country to another for a variety of complex reasons. Some are forced to move, due to conflictRead MoreThe Immigration Of The United States1711 Words   |  7 PagesThe vast majority of people living in the United States are descendants of immigrants, and yet majority of them are against them. It is quickly forgotten that America was built on immigrants that wanted a new life. A life free from harsh government, and the freedom from forced religion. The original settlers were immigrants that stole this land; immigrants continued to come for years. It is not a newly constructed concept that immigrants have always been a problem, ask any Native American. One usedRead MoreImmigration Of The United States1064 Words   |  5 Pages Camarota (2007, p.1), director of the Immigration Studies Center, reports there are 1.6 million documented and undocumented migrants take up residence in the United States every year. Camarota goes on to say that the immigrants occupy one-eighth of the total population who settled in the U.S. The flood of aliens, to a significant degree, hinders the development of the United States. Therefore, the issues which relate to immigration must not be neglected, and the government should keep the numberRead MoreImmigration And The United States Essay1377 Words   |  6 Pages Immigration has been a large conversation topic for such a long time in our country. We have worked on policies for immigration, and have made changes to them throughout the duration of our country’s existence. This topic is always worth mentioning and important, but has become a bigger topic once again due to presidential elections and the conversations being had about immigration from said elections. It is not necessarily easily seen if the concern with immigration is who is here legally or limitingRead MoreImmigration Of The United States1565 Words   |  7 PagesA native of Mexico, Gonzalez came to the United States using a visa, to visit family members and in 1994, police convicted Gonzalez of the abduction and rape of a Waukegan, Illinois woman. During his conviction his attorney, Vanessa Potkin, addressed that at twenty years old, Gonzalez spoke very little English, had no criminal record, and yet the police wanted to pin the crime on him. Twenty years later, DNA from the crime cleared him of both charges, and Gonzalez is now threatened with deportationRead MoreImmigration : The United States1087 Words   |  5 PagesThe United States is a popular and powerful which many people admire. It is very true that the country prospect and is more enrich. O pening the border might improve the economy or can impact the job market for American citizens. It is the jobs of American citizens to be given more to this illegal immigrant. I believe the U.S. borders should remain closed. While it is clear that opening the borders can have benefits, I believe it is more important to keep jobs available for Americans. In my opinionRead MoreThe Immigration Of The United States1632 Words   |  7 PagesFrench and European to settle in the New World. Since the colonial era, America has seen a wave of immigrants migrate in search of freedom and equality. Is this the same immigration today? Nearly 11.6 million immigrants from Mexico reside in the U.S. Today Immigration has a significant impact on many aspects of life in the United States, from the workforce and the classroom to communities across the country. Not all immigrants come to America legally whether as naturalized citizens, legal permanent residents

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Ben and Jerry Free Essays

Ben and Jerry’s ice-cream company is well known for its sales in the USA, Europe, and Asia. They are a very well established, successful, global operation. Since 2000, the company has continually improved their ice-cream brands. We will write a custom essay sample on Ben and Jerry or any similar topic only for you Order Now They sell its named ice-cream and frozen yogurt under brand names such as Chunky Monkey and Cherry Garcia. Chunky Monkey is banana ice-cream with fudge chunks and walnuts. In 2009, Chunky Monkey was named among the top ten best ice-cream flavors in London. Philanthropy is also a strength of Ben and Jerry’s ice-cream. The Company contributed $1,206,412 to the Ben Jerry’s Foundation in 2002, as compared to $1,178,423 in 2001. Ben and Jerry’s divide the philanthropic pool of funds between the Foundation, Corporate Philanthropy, and employee Community Action Teams (CATs). The company sponsors many PartnerShops. Partnershops are Ben and Jerry’s scoop shop outlets which are independently owned and operated by nonprofit organizations. The organizations they partner with, work with youth that encounter barriers to employment. They use the scoop shops as a place to carryout hands-on job training. Ben and Jerry’s waive the franchise fee and provide additional financial support to their partners. They have more than 750 Scoop Shops worldwide. The company is involved in global warming campaigns. Ben and Jerry’s commitment is to reduce the company’s carbon dioxide emissions by 10 percent. On many levels, their employees are directly involved to help make this commitment happen. After twenty-five years of independent operation, Ben and Jerry’s were bought out by Unilever, the Anglo-Dutch multinational consumer products firm for $325 million. Under the deal, Unilever gave Ben and Jerry’s shareholders $43. 60 per share. Through it all, Ben and Jerry’s were able to retain their social responsibility stand. They were able to keep the co-founders involved with product development. Ben and Jerry’s brands complemented Unilever’s ice-cream brands. In the past, Ben and Jerry’s have lacked professionalism from their upper management. In 2006, the company’s former CFO, Stuart Wiles, was found guilty of embezzling some $300,000 from the company during his tenure which ran from 2000 to 2004. He spent the money on car repairs, gifts, vacations, entertainment, clothing – and even a $58,000 addition to his home. He was sentenced to twenty-seven months in prison. Also, in 2006, they had to stop using Michael Foods as their egg supplier. An animal welfare campaign pressured Ben and Jerry’s to dump the egg producer accused of mistreating its chickens. An undercover video, showed dead and dying chickens stuck in their cages. Ben and Jerry’s bought about two million pounds of eggs per year from the supplier. Despite several corporate weaknesses, the company achieved success. In 1994, Ben and Jerry’s reinvested large amounts of money into property and equipment. By purchasing the property and equipment, they increased their long-term debts by almost 45 percent. They also increased their marketing and selling expenses. They thought it would be best to take out an immense amount of capital lease to automate production. They saw the need to do this so they could keep up with the intense competition. In today’s health conscious society, Ben and Jerry’s have introduced more fat-free and healthy alternative ice-cream and frozen yogurt products. These low-fat, no-fat products still contain the creamy richness and unbeatable quality, but only have three grams of fat per serving. Ben and Jerry’s also provide allergen free food items, such as gluten free and peanut free. In 2008, Ben and Jerry’s acquired Best Foods and Slim-fast. Slim-fast happens to be one of Unilever’s top-performers allowing them to enter a new industry of weight loss products. In turn, Unilever can now expand into more countries like Europe, where weight loss management is taking hold. In 2009, Ben and Jerry’s announced plans to introduce the country’s first HFC-free freezer. These freezers do not emit harmful chemicals into the atmosphere. Most freezers in the U. S. use hydro fluorocarbon gases to generate cooling. These HFC’s have a significant downside. HFCs are among a group of refrigerants, known as â€Å"F-gases†, highly potent greenhouse gases. The most commonly used HFC has a global warming potential (GWP) of 3,200. This means that a ton of this gas in the atmosphere has the same global warming effect as 3,200 tons of carbon dioxide. Over time, all those leaking freezers can make a significant contribution to the problems of global warming. How to cite Ben and Jerry, Papers

Ben and Jerry Free Essays

Ben and Jerry’s ice-cream company is well known for its sales in the USA, Europe, and Asia. They are a very well established, successful, global operation. Since 2000, the company has continually improved their ice-cream brands. We will write a custom essay sample on Ben and Jerry or any similar topic only for you Order Now They sell its named ice-cream and frozen yogurt under brand names such as Chunky Monkey and Cherry Garcia. Chunky Monkey is banana ice-cream with fudge chunks and walnuts. In 2009, Chunky Monkey was named among the top ten best ice-cream flavors in London. Philanthropy is also a strength of Ben and Jerry’s ice-cream. The Company contributed $1,206,412 to the Ben Jerry’s Foundation in 2002, as compared to $1,178,423 in 2001. Ben and Jerry’s divide the philanthropic pool of funds between the Foundation, Corporate Philanthropy, and employee Community Action Teams (CATs). The company sponsors many PartnerShops. Partnershops are Ben and Jerry’s scoop shop outlets which are independently owned and operated by nonprofit organizations. The organizations they partner with, work with youth that encounter barriers to employment. They use the scoop shops as a place to carryout hands-on job training. Ben and Jerry’s waive the franchise fee and provide additional financial support to their partners. They have more than 750 Scoop Shops worldwide. The company is involved in global warming campaigns. Ben and Jerry’s commitment is to reduce the company’s carbon dioxide emissions by 10 percent. On many levels, their employees are directly involved to help make this commitment happen. After twenty-five years of independent operation, Ben and Jerry’s were bought out by Unilever, the Anglo-Dutch multinational consumer products firm for $325 million. Under the deal, Unilever gave Ben and Jerry’s shareholders $43. 60 per share. Through it all, Ben and Jerry’s were able to retain their social responsibility stand. They were able to keep the co-founders involved with product development. Ben and Jerry’s brands complemented Unilever’s ice-cream brands. In the past, Ben and Jerry’s have lacked professionalism from their upper management. In 2006, the company’s former CFO, Stuart Wiles, was found guilty of embezzling some $300,000 from the company during his tenure which ran from 2000 to 2004. He spent the money on car repairs, gifts, vacations, entertainment, clothing – and even a $58,000 addition to his home. He was sentenced to twenty-seven months in prison. Also, in 2006, they had to stop using Michael Foods as their egg supplier. An animal welfare campaign pressured Ben and Jerry’s to dump the egg producer accused of mistreating its chickens. An undercover video, showed dead and dying chickens stuck in their cages. Ben and Jerry’s bought about two million pounds of eggs per year from the supplier. Despite several corporate weaknesses, the company achieved success. In 1994, Ben and Jerry’s reinvested large amounts of money into property and equipment. By purchasing the property and equipment, they increased their long-term debts by almost 45 percent. They also increased their marketing and selling expenses. They thought it would be best to take out an immense amount of capital lease to automate production. They saw the need to do this so they could keep up with the intense competition. In today’s health conscious society, Ben and Jerry’s have introduced more fat-free and healthy alternative ice-cream and frozen yogurt products. These low-fat, no-fat products still contain the creamy richness and unbeatable quality, but only have three grams of fat per serving. Ben and Jerry’s also provide allergen free food items, such as gluten free and peanut free. In 2008, Ben and Jerry’s acquired Best Foods and Slim-fast. Slim-fast happens to be one of Unilever’s top-performers allowing them to enter a new industry of weight loss products. In turn, Unilever can now expand into more countries like Europe, where weight loss management is taking hold. In 2009, Ben and Jerry’s announced plans to introduce the country’s first HFC-free freezer. These freezers do not emit harmful chemicals into the atmosphere. Most freezers in the U. S. use hydro fluorocarbon gases to generate cooling. These HFC’s have a significant downside. HFCs are among a group of refrigerants, known as â€Å"F-gases†, highly potent greenhouse gases. The most commonly used HFC has a global warming potential (GWP) of 3,200. This means that a ton of this gas in the atmosphere has the same global warming effect as 3,200 tons of carbon dioxide. Over time, all those leaking freezers can make a significant contribution to the problems of global warming. How to cite Ben and Jerry, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Sailing to Byzantium (1927) by William Butler Yeats Essay Example

Sailing to Byzantium (1927) by William Butler Yeats Essay The poem â€Å"Sailing to Byzantium† was written by William Butler Yeats in 1926, and it was part of a collection called Tower. The title of the poem refers to the ancient city of Byzantium in Turkey that is presently known as Istanbul. It is the first of two poems known together as the Byzantium series. The poem has four eight-line stanzas that are metered in iambic pentameter (Brittanica, Para 2). The poem is prismatic in nature and viewed in the right angle reveals a spectrum of meanings and emotions.   It is through the use of many literary devices that the poet is able to convey these multiple meanings. Yeats, drawing from his personal life experiences, effectively dwells on the themes of escape from the world’s troubles and a search for immortality. Through his meticulous choice of words Yeats brings out the frustration and intense need for escape and immortality that many people feel in their moments of desperation (Ensminger para 1). The poem opens with the line: â€Å"That is no country for old men.† Thus the poet expresses his deep concern for ‘old age’ while in a subtle manner; he also implies that it is a country that is meant for the young and lively things. These youthful things and abundance of life are well brought out by the poet by references to the ‘the young in one anothers arms’ ‘birds in the trees† ‘the salmon-falls’ and ‘the mackerel crowded seas’ (Yeats 2-4). This is followed by the line â€Å"Whatever is begotten born and dies.† This shows the frustration of the poet at the inevitability of mortality. Yeats rues the fact that the society tends to focus only on the sensual things of the present world and ignores more substantial things such as wisdom and intellect: â€Å"Caught in that sensual music all neglect/Monuments of unageing intellect† (Yeats 7-8). We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium (1927) by William Butler Yeats specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium (1927) by William Butler Yeats specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium (1927) by William Butler Yeats specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The second stanza begins with the description of an old man as a paltry thing, / A tattered coat upon a stick (Yeats 9-10). These lines seem to reflect the poet’s own physical inability and old age. The poet says that the only thing that can give life to such an old man is the ability to sing through his poetry. The poet holds that poetry is the magic potion that can He believes that his poetry can help him to overcome the transience of time and old age. â€Å"For every tatter in its mortal dress† (Yeats 12)refers to the human body that is suffering from many physical inabilities. The poet reflects that there is no ‘singing school’ implying that poetry cannot be taught. It needs to be studied and that is why the poet travels across the seas and decides to arrive at the â€Å"holy city of Byzantium†: the holy city is a sort of paradise that the poet holds in his mind (Kennedy and Gioia 866-67). Here, the writer uses symbolism. His reference to sailing to Byzantium seems to be metaphorical voyage to a land where art and intellect are valued as things of magnificence and permanence. The third stanza expresses the intense plea of the poet to the divine sages of Byzantium to save him from death. He calls out to them â€Å"O sages standing in God’s holy fire† (Yeats 17). He wants them to come from the holy fire and allow him the gift of creating poetry. This is what the poet expresses through the lines: â€Å"Come from the holy fire, perne in a gyre/And be the singing-masters of my soul† (Yeats 19-20). He wants poetry to rule his heart which has no identity of its own: â€Å"It knows not what it is;† (Yeats 23) At this point, the poet once again refers to his aging body and his desires trapped in the aging body through the lines â€Å"sick with desire/And fastened to a dying animal. Through the gift of poetry, the poet firmly believes, the sages can save him from mortality and enter the â€Å"artifice of eternity† (Thorndike 1852). In the final stanza, the poet says that once he has escaped mortality, he will not desire to take any natural form as all natural forms are bound to die one day or other. Instead he desires to be a beautiful gold bird. This gold bird would be one like those made by â€Å"Grecian goldsmiths/ Of hammered gold and gold enamelling† (Yeats 25-26). He might in the form of this beautiful golden bird would then enjoy the power â€Å"To keep a drowsy Emperor awake;† He might also be â€Å"set upon a golden bough to sing/To lords and ladies of Byzantium/Of what is past, or passing, or to come† (Yeats 31-32). In this final stanza the poet refers to the fact that true immortality can be acquired only through an intellectual permanence of poetry. The poet feels through his poetry â€Å"the golden bird†, he will be able to â€Å"sing† to many people about â€Å"the past, the present and the future†. This reference to the past, the present and the future in dicates the permanence and timelessness the poet believes can come through poetry. The poet uses symbolism widely in this poem. He refers to a bird in each stanza and the meaning of the bird as one that represents immortality and freedom from physical inabilities is found in the last stanza. The bird is not a natural bird but rather a golden bird and one that is artistically made. This means that the bird is not mortal and cannot die. The fact that it is artistic shows that only through poems considered works of art in literature- the poet can achieve that immortality. The metaphor of singing that the poet uses throughout the poem refers to the ‘music’ in poetry.   In the opening stanza the song is that of the birds in the trees, in the second and third stanzas, it is about a ‘singing school’ and finally the poet refers to the song of the golden bird. According to him, only by reading poems he can learn to step into that world of immortality (Thorndike 1853). It has been found that Yeats has used personal experiences to color his poem in a brilliant manner. He was exposed to Byzantine art twenty years prior to writing Sailing to Byzantium. He has described Byzantine mosaics for imagery in the third stanza.   When Yeats was nearly sixty years old, he saw Mediterranean mosaic works that compared the permanence of art with the transience of nature. The impact can be felt in the lines: Once out of nature I shall never take / My bodily form from any natural thing, / But such a form as Grecian goldsmiths make (25-27). Yeats, during that period was suffering physically and was old. His depressed feelings at home made him desire travel.   It is probably this desire that is expressed through the metaphoric voyage in the poem. (Allen 3728). In the third stanza, the poet refers to a particular painting he saw in a Ravenna church, which shows martyrs being burned for their faith. The phrase â€Å"perne in a gyre† (Yeats 19) refers to a spi nning wheel such as those Yeats would have seen during his youth in Sligo. Yeats refers to the words associated with mortal life in monosyllables such as â€Å"fish, flesh, fowl† and â€Å"aged man†. But he uses polysyllables to express the permanence of intellect such as â€Å"Monuments of unageing intellect† And â€Å"Of hammered gold and gold enamelling.† This technique allows an undercurrent of the superiority of art over human life to flow through the poem. The poem can be taken as a metaphor for the poet’s journey to an ideal afterlife, or as a commentary on the permanence of artistic achievement or both. However, one finds through the use of metaphors, and symbolic language, the poem â€Å"Sailing to Byzantium† is kaleidoscopic and offers multiple ways of interpretation. Moreover, it has become a poem that can be included in comparisons with other poems in the realm of travel, age, nature, birds as symbols and afterlife.   It is mostly due to its multiple interpretive capabilities that this poem has reached the permanence and timelessness the poet sought during his lifetime.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Why 40% of Mergers and Joint Ventures Fail †Business Essay

Why 40% of Mergers and Joint Ventures Fail – Business Essay Free Online Research Papers Why 40% of Mergers and Joint Ventures Fail Business Essay There have been a lot of companies in the recent past who have merged with other companies. They could be successful or after some time, they may fail. A successful company merger presently could be Sony Erickson, with Sony being one company and Erickson another before the merger. An incident of a merger failure could be Dunlop Pirelli. This essay will attempt to show the reasons as to why 40% of mergers and joint ventures fail. The topics under which the writer will prove this are change, leadership, communication, culture, McGregor’s X and Y theory. Regarding change, resistance to change will be talked about when it comes to two or more companies merging. When it comes to leadership, the possible clashes between autocratic and democratic leadership styles will be discussed. We will see what Gaut and Perrigo have to say about it, and also from Adler and Elmhorst. The laissez- faire style of leadership will also be discussed. As for communication, the possible problems that can occur with companies who have open communication merging with others who have closed communication will be discussed. Clashes with supportive and defensive communication will also be shown. It would be clearly explained by Gaut and Perrigo. Culture is a very big factor which decides whether a merger is a failure or not. Under culture, low context culture versus high context culture; Individualism versus Collectivism; High power distance versus low power distance; Low uncertainty avoidance versus high uncertainty avoidance; masculinity versus femininity, and finally monochronic versus polychronic will be discussed. Here again, Adler and Elmhorst, will explain individualism and collectivism, and so will Trompenaars. We will see the different types of cultures Handy talks about, and also what Hofstede has to say about culture. McGregor’s X and Y theory will be discussed, where problems of X workers clashing with Y workers will be explained. Mergers take place when two or more companies join together to form one big company. Joint ventures are similar to mergers, but the only difference is that the two companies still keep their separate identities. â€Å"A merger can resemble a takeover but result in a new company name (often combining the names of the original companies) and in new branding; in some cases, terming the combination a merger rather than an acquisition is done purely for political or marketing reasons.†(1) One main reason as to why mergers fail is that both companies have different leadership styles. If two different leadership styles come together, the chance of a successful merger is very slim. The meaning of leadership is as follows: â€Å"In the most simplest terms, leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something we want them to do.†( Gaut Perrigo). According to Adler Elmhorst (2005), there are three main leadership styles. The first style is the autocratic style. â€Å"Some leaders are authoritarian, using legitimate, coercive, and reward power at their disposal to control members.†(Adler,R Elmhorst,J). Gaut Perrigo (1998) acknowledges the fact that an autocratic leader is someone who sees himself as the central person in authority and who has power over his workers. Adler Elmhorst continues by saying that there are democratic leaders who invite the workers to help in decision making. Gaut Perrigo (1998) also demonstrates that a democratic leader is a person who involves his followers in decision making. There could also be a third leadership style which is laissez- faire. â€Å"The designated leader gives up the power of that position and transforms the group into a leaderless collection of equals.†(Adler Elmhorst). Therefore one can see that if any of these types of leadership come together then it would be disastrous, as the management of one company will be in conflict with the management of the other merging company as to which leadership style to adopt. They could ultimately come to no agreement and the merger would fail. The next factor that is going to be discussed is the different types of communication styles of merging companies. According to Gaut Perrigo (1998), â€Å"Communication style is defined as the manner in which you disclose information to your co-workers, supervisor(s) and subordinates.† Gaut Perrigo further explains that there can be open communication and closed communication. They say that open communication is all about people sharing information and opinions freely. They add that, in contrast closed communication involves little information shared and that workers don’t feel free to tell their opinions. Another type of contrasting communication styles according to Gaut Perrigo are defensive and supportive communication. They say that defensive communication will be there when the workers lack openness and also honesty with each other. In contrast, they explain that supportive communication is where there is plenty of openness and honesty. Therefore, defensive communication reduces the communication effectiveness but supportive communication enhances job productivity and satisfaction. Therefore, if there is a clash between any of these types of communication styles when merging – like open and close communication, defensive and supportive communication – then the merger can turn out to be a failure. This is because workers who are used to one type of communication won’t get along with workers who are used to another type of communication. A very important factor that will decide whether a merger is successful or not, are the culture of both companies who are merging. There are many sub- factors under this. Culture could be defined as follows: â€Å"The shared values, traditions, customs, philosophy, and policies of a corporation; also, the professional atmosphere that grows from this and affects behaviour and performance† (2) There could be one company who has an individualistic culture merging with another company who has a collectivist culture. Adler Elmhorst(2005) explains that workers in firms who nature individualistic cultures tend to think about themselves first, and then only the society. They also say that there is a lot of freedom available to them. This is given to them in order to achieve their personal goals. Trompenaars(2003) says that individualism affects three critical areas, which are negotiations, decision making and motivation. He says that individuals seek to be distinguished within the group, and that the other members also approve of this. He says the word â€Å"I† is the most used word for individualism. Adler Elmhorst(2005) say that in collectivist cultures, contrastingly, the workers work in groups and their first loyalty is towards one another in the group. They add that workers of collectivist societies are likely to believe that the welfare of the company is as import ant as themselves. Therefore as we can see, individualistic workers and collectivist workers will never go hand in hand with each other. This is because both types of workers are working with a different mind set which are two extremes. The other type of culture clash is power distance. Adler Elmhorst defines that â€Å"power distance refers to attitude toward differences in authority.† They say that there are high power distances and low power distances. They continue by saying that high power distance cultures emphasizes that there is unequal power distributed among the workers. Some workers are believed to have more influence and resources than others. Whereas low power distance cultures treat everyone equal, and even if the manager has a bit more power than the other workers, the managers’ powers are not exaggerated. According to Handy, he divides culture into four categories. The first is power culture which means authority is with a few people only. It has a few rules only. The second is role culture, where the amount of power is defined from the role of the person in the company. He names the third as task culture where teams are formed to solve the firm’s problems. The last is called a person culture where the workers think they are more important than the company. (3) If two different cultures explained by Handy merge, for example – power culture and task culture, then the risk of failure will be very high. In contrast, Hofstede talks about five characteristics of culture. He agrees with Adler Elmhorst that there can be differences in the power distances, which can be high or low. He also talks of individualism where workers are supposed to stand up for themselves, the other being collectivism where workers work as a group. Additionally, Hofstede talks about masculinity versus femininity, which explains the differences between male and females values. He says that male values usually include competitiveness, ambition and things like material possessions. On the other hand, he describes female values like being feelings and relationships. He also talks of uncertainty avoidance where he says that society or, in this case a firm will be prepared to accept risks only to a certain extent. He also mentions short and long orientations. (4) Another type of culture clash is between high context culture and low context culture. According to Adler Elmhorst, a low context culture means that workers will use verbal communication to show feelings, thoughts and ideas. On the other hand, a high context culture expresses meaning by using nonverbal methods, in order to maintain harmony between the workers. The final factor in culture which will be discussed is the concept of monochronic and polychronic. People(in this case workers) who are monochronic will do one job at a time, whereas people who are polychronic will tend to do many jobs at the same time, but at the end of the day hasn’t finished a single job. Monochronic people concentrate really hard on the job they are doing, they also take deadlines very seriously. Contrastingly, polychronic people are very distractible and are prone to interruptions. Monochronic people are low context and need a lot of information, whereas it’s the opposite for polychronic pe ople where they are high context and already have plenty of information. (5) Therefore, it can be said that if polychronic workers of one firm merges with another firm which has monochronic workers- the merger won’t be a successful one as these two types of workers won’t work well hand in hand. The next topic which will be discussed regarding mergers, is the concept of change. Resistance to change will be discussed in detail as it is appropriate for mergers, and whether they are successful or not. Resistance to change can be defined as: â€Å"Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them.† (6) The workers of a company who are about to go through some kind of change, in this case a merger, will start to oppose the change if they feel that they are going to lose out in the merger. There could be an instance where there is resistance from the customers regarding the merger. They may not support the change, and may switch to firms which are rivals to the merging firms. (7) As can be seen, resistance to change is a threat to the success of a merger. The management of the two firms merging will have to deal with the problems created by the workers. They may lose customers who are a gainst the merger. All this could spell failure. McGregor’s X and Y theory states that there are two types of workers X and Y. â€Å"Theory X assumes that the average person: dislikes work and attempts to avoid it; has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead; is self centered and therefore does not care about organisational goals; resists change; is gullible and not particularly intelligent.† (8) Theory Y is just the opposite of X. Y workers are committed to their jobs, and seek responsibility. They seek rewards and will work hard in order to get it. They are creative and genuine. If there is a merger, where in one company there are X workers and the other- Y workers, probability of a successful merger is very slim. Therefore, from the above established information, one could see that most mergers would fail due to the above reasons. The writer would also like to add a few things. The problem of tall and flat structures could also be present when two companies merge. A tall structure is where a firm has many layers from the top manager to the lowest worker. A flat structure doesn’t have many layers. If a manager of a flat organisation mergers with an organisation which is tall, he would want to get rid of unnecessary workers by delayering. Many workers will lose their jobs, and they will demand compensation. This is costly as the company will have to pay every worker who got unemployed because of the merger, and if they don’t compensate they will create a bad image, and therefore customers may switch their loyalty to other rival companies. The merger would ultimately fail. Regarding resistance to change, one solution could be educating the workforce. The managers could tell the workers of the benefits that the merger could bring. This would definitely reduce the amount of resistance and would lead to a successful merger. However, this method may not always work as some workers may not change their minds. Other solutions could be participation and involvement, where the managers will ask the workers to help in the process of merging. This would make the workers more involved, and they would resist less to the change. Facilitation and support could be a third solution where the managers would try to help the workers during the process of merging. The managers could strike an agreement or negotiation with the workers. All this will reduce the amount of resistance. When we talk about culture clashes and its problems, the solution that comes to mind is that the managers of the different firms which are coming together should first agree on one culture. This corporate culture should remain and should not be changed. However, they should introduce it slowly and not at once, so that the workers will have time to get used to it. If the merged company introduces it too quickly, then workers would not be able to adapt to it. They may get frustrated and leave the company (including efficient workers). In the end, the company would suffer from a shortage of workers and would have to start recruiting workers. This would be a difficult procedure and the merger would eventually fail. Another factor that could increase the chances of a merger surviving, are government subsidies. If the government thinks that a particular merger is beneficial for the society, then it would provide subsidies which will reduce the cost of merging, and therefore make it easier for the merger to take place. However, the opposite could also happen. The government may think that the merger is not in the best interest of the people. If it thinks like that, it may make it very difficult for the two companies to merge. It could, for example, increase the corporation tax rates of the merged firm. Therefore the firm would have to pay a higher percentage of its profit as tax. The profitability of the firm would fall, and it would fail. One definite threat for a smaller company merging with a very large company is the fact that it could result in a take over, where the large company would have the ability to take over the smaller one by buying more than 50% of the shares. In which case, the smaller company would lose its identity. Therefore, the workers who were working in the smaller company could become non- co operative because they feel that they have lost their identity. Therefore, the overall efficiency would go down, and they would become less competitive and ultimately fail. Therefore, if a merger is to be successful, it would be advisable that two companies of similar sizes merge. Then, they would have similar powers and not an imbalance of power. As had been said before, there could be autocratic leaders and democratic leaders. A solution that can reduce the possibility of a merger failing could be that the new management could appoint a leader that can be both democratic, and also autocratic at times. This is because when two companies merge, there will be all sorts of workers. There could be workers who are lazy and inefficient, and there could be workers who are efficient and like responsibility. This type of leader could be democratic towards the workers who are efficient and hard working, but could be autocratic towards the lazy ones. This way the company can get useful ideas out of the efficient ones, and also would be assured that the inefficient workers work. This approach would definitely reduce the possibility of a merger failing. There could be an instance where one company which is producing one type of product merges with another company producing a different type of product. Since the managers of one company do not have the expertise in the other company’s product, and vice versa, the management decisions would not be professional. This could make them incompetent, and they would lose customers and market share. They would eventually fail. On the other hand, one could say that if two companies producing different products merge, then they would be diversifying. This would be really good as they would have more security. For example, if one product is making a loss, it would be covered by the profit of the other product. Therefore, this would help the merged company to survive in the market and not fail. Mergers could achieve economies of scale or suffer from diseconomies of scale. This could be further explained. The general understanding is that when a merger takes place, the new company would become bigger in size. This could be an advantage to them as they will have the ability to achieve economies of scale. This is where an increase in output reduces the cost of input. However, if the company goes over the optimum level of output, they could suffer diseconomies of scale, which is when the cost of inputs increases at a higher rate than the output. As a result, if the company can not control its cost due to diseconomies of scale, they would fail. To avoid failing, they should produce the optimum amount of units. International mergers are discussed when we talk about mergers. It could be said that international mergers, where a company from one country merging with a company from another country, could have less chances of survival. This is because the two companies will have different styles of working. In one country, the people in general may consider relationships and socialising the top priority, and then only working. In the other country however, they may consider work as the highest priority, and then only things like social activities and relationships. Therefore, both companies will probably have different priorities, and so in the end, nothing will be achieved and it will be a disaster. Therefore, if international mergers were to take place, the merger should be with companies of which the two countries have the same priorities. Then only will there be good co ordination. The other big problem when it comes to international mergers is the communication barriers that arise. Since th ere is a big distance between the two companies, there could be breakdowns in communication. Misunderstandings can occur which can lead to wrong decision making. If they are operating in a competitive market, this wrong decision made could cost the merged company a lot and they may fail. However, these days, due to technological advancement – the amount of distance has reduced for internationally merged companies. In other words, globalisation has helped reduce the possibility of failure. An example of technological progress is in the invention of video conferencing, where the managers from two different countries, can see the person they are talking to without ever actually having to leave the country. This will save time and cost, and reduce the amount of misunderstandings. When we discuss merger failures, we were mainly talking about the internal factors that contribute to their failure. We have to consider the external factors as well. We could say that if interest rates change, the company that is merging has no power over it. If interest rates increase, then the cost of merging will increase (especially if there were a lot of borrowings involved). This unanticipated cost may be too much to cope and it will fail. However, if interest rates fall it would be beneficial. If inflation rates increase after the merger takes place, the demand will fall as people reduce their spending as it is expensive. The merger will have to cope with the lower demand first up in addition to its internal problems. They may suffer with the huge pressure. However, if the inflation rise is temporary, then it would not be a problem. There could also be special pressure groups who could campaign against the merger for some reason. One reason could be that the merger will conve rt the new company into a monopoly with over twenty five percent of market share. The pressure groups could convince the public that the merger is not in their interests. The consumers may retaliate be not buying the company’s products. This would lead to a reduction in sales and profits. The company may close down because of this. Therefore, from the above factors discussed above, it could be agreeable that many mergers fail. However, one doubts whether the percentage of mergers failing could be as high as 40%, it could be a bit lower. The reasons that would explain that 40% is too high can be shown by the following: Most mergers that are set up have been carefully planned by the merging firms. It’s not practical to choose any firm to merge with. There should be a careful screening of firms, and the firm that is the most compatible one to the other firm who is selecting, should be chosen. Even if mergers do have problems at the start, it would only be in the short term. In the long term, however, the merger would reap positive benefits. They would become a large stable company, and would become very competitive in the market. They could also achieve economies of scale, which would reduce costs. The end result would be that they become very profitable, and would not definitely fail. Therefore, it would be natural for companies who are merging, to go through the usual cycle of short run difficulties, followed by long term gains. There would be cases of mergers failing, but it could be said that it would not be as high as 40%, as long as there is careful planning and selection of the companies who intend to merge. Research Papers on Why 40% of Mergers and Joint Ventures Fail - Business EssayBringing Democracy to AfricaOpen Architechture a white paperThree Concepts of PsychodynamicAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaStandardized TestingThe Project Managment Office SystemMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenTwilight of the UAWRelationship between Media Coverage and Social and

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Why Applying to as Many Jobs as Possible can be a Mistake

Why Applying to as Many Jobs as Possible can be a Mistake There are two mistakes when applying for jobs. One is to apply to every job in sight, and the other is to apply for multiple positions within the company. Learning the reasons these are mistakes can keep an individual from wasting time and concentrate on the jobs that the individual really wants. If you do not want to waste time finding the right jobs, you can sign up for the right jobs to be sent to you when they become available. Applying for Multiple Jobs at the Same TimeIndividuals who apply for multiple jobs at the same time on job search sites tend to follow the same pattern. Because they are flooding the job websites with multiple applications, they are not taking the time to individualize job applications to show that they are qualified to fill particular jobs. This is the reason why those who send out multiple applications rarely hear back from recruiters. It is better to take the time to research the company and rework a job application to fit the description of the positio n.Focus on Particular JobsThe purpose of a resume is to sell the talents of a worker to a company. The resume should show that the applicant has the credentials to do a particular job and would be a good fit in the position and with the company. A candidate whose resume is too generic will most likely have his or her resume end up in the bottom of the pile.Be Careful Where You Are ApplyingHiring managers or recruiters may post job ads on multiple sites looking for the right match for a job. One mistake job applicants can make is not noticing that they are applying for the same position with the same company over and over. However, the recruiter does notice and may think that the job applicant is sending out multiple resumes without any discretion.Don’t Apply for Nonexistent JobsSome people make the mistake of applying for jobs at a company where none are available. After sending out possibly hundreds of applications, it should be surprising when no responses are forthcoming. Apply only to real job openings where the company is actively looking to fill a position.Applying for Multiple Jobs at the Same CompanyThis can be a big mistake. Recruiters see the job applications as they come in, and an individual who applies for multiple positions within the same company can come across as desperate and willing to take any job. Applying for jobs in this way can end up with the recruiter noting your desperation on your application file. In other words, this is a good way to never get called in for an interview. Recruiters want individuals who actually want particular jobs because they are more likely to stay in the position.How to Apply for Multiple Jobs at the Same CompanyIf a job seeker has an eye to work for a particular company, there are ways to send multiple application, limited to two or three, and still be considered, but it takes finesse to do so. The size of the company can make a difference. A large company may employ multiple recruiters, and that can i ncrease the odds that the same individual will not spot multiple applications from the same person. In addition, focusing only on jobs that are in the same category and for which an individual is fully qualified can make a difference.Getting Your Name Out ThereBesides letting your friends and coworkers know that you are job hunting, it can also be a good idea to use social media such as Facebook or LinkedIn to promote yourself. Many recruiters now take a look at a job applicant’s LinkedIn profile because it can contain much more job information and history than a resume. No matter what an individual’s field of employment is, using job search sites or a job search service can be enhanced by using social media.Applying for a job and getting a callback for an interview takes dedication and focusing on skills and credentials that apply to particular job descriptions. Just as knowing how to get considered for a job is important, so is using the right means to find that job. TheJobNetwork can help by searching job listings that match your skills and expertise to send you email alerts around the clock that might interest you. All you have to do is fill out your qualifications and job interests and TheJobNetwork does the rest. Sign up with TheJobNetwork and get started now.